Bài giảng môn Anh văn - Phonetics

 2. From the point of view of perception:

 All stress syllables have one characteristics in common. It is their prominence. A syllable is recognized as stress because it is more prominent than the others.

From the point of view of production:

 The nature of stress depends on the speakers using more muscular energy to produce more air from the lungs to produce a stressed syllable.

 

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PhoneticsA. Pronunciation: (Unit 1,2) I. Vowels: There are 20 vowels in English: 1. Pure vowels (12): 	 ə	i	e	ʌ	ʊ	ɔ	 	 	 əː	iː	æ	a	ʊː	ɔː 2. Diphthongs (8) ː ei ai	ɔi au	 əu	 eə	 iə	uə 3. Triphthongs (5) ː eiə aiə ɔiə	 auə	 əuə II. Consonantsː There are 24 consonants in English and they are divided into 2 typesː voiced and voiceless consonants.Welcome to English 12voicelessθtkpfʃtʃhvoiced ðdgbvzʒdʒlmnŋrwj s 	 /s/ after voiceless consonants. /z/ after voiced consonants and vowels.szes /iz/ after sibilant sounds.voicelessθtkpfsʃtʃhvoiced ðdgbvzʒdʒlmnŋrwjed /id/ after /t/ and /d/. /t/ after voiceless consonants. /d/ after voiced consonants and vowels.voicelessθkpfsʃtʃhvoiced ðgbvzʒdʒlmnŋrwjB. Stress (Unit 3,4,5) What is stress? How many types of stress are there? How to teach tress?tdI. Introductionː 1. From the point of view of production: The nature of stress depends on the speakers using more muscular energy to produce more air from the lungs to produce a stressed syllable. 2. From the point of view of perception: All stress syllables have one characteristics in common. It is their prominence. A syllable is recognized as stress because it is more prominent than the others.II. Types of stress.There are two types of stress; word stress and sentence stress. 1. Some basic rules of stress placement within a wordː a. strong – weak – strong. b. strong – weak – weak. Exː 'dangerous 	'generous	 'elephant	 'element c. Stress often falls on the strong vowels. - a 	 æ, a, ei ə	 - e e	 i, ə - i ai, i	 i, ə - o	 ɔ, əu, ʌ	 əu, ə	 - u	 i, ju, ʌ	 ə d. Stress often falls on the root morphemes. Exː 	 un'happily	un'comfortable	en'danger e. Stress often falls on the diphthongs or long vowels. 	 These syllables containing the following groups of letters are often pronounced with a diphthong or a long vowels (strong endings).- ese	- ique- ee	- ality- eer	- ain (verbs)- ette	- oo- esque	- oon- een	- mental f. The syllable standing before the ones containing the following groups of letters often receives stress (weak endings).- ic	- ion- ics*	- ian- ical	- ial- ically	- ience- ous*	- ient- eous	- iency- ious	- age- uous	- ity g. The words which have the same spelling but different parts of speech, the nouns and adjectives often receive stress on the first syllable whereas the verbs receive stress on the second one. Exː 'conduct	'conflict	 'present	'import	 'export	'contest	 'record	'object h. Stress varies according to affixation. Exː 	'photo	photo'genic	 pho'tography i. Most of the nouns with two syllables often receive stress on the first syllable while most of the verbs with two syllables often receive the stress on the second syllable. * Notesː - Stress often falls on the first syllable if the verbs contain the strong vowels or ends with no more than one consonant. Exː 	'enter	'open	'travel . - Stress often falls on the first syllable if the verbs contain the following groups of letters ‘ow’ Exː	'borrow	'follow	'shallow. j. The verbs containing three syllables have the following rules: - Stress often falls on the first syllable if the verbs contain a long vowel or a diphthong at the end or the last syllable contains more than one consonant. Exː	 'paradise	 'exercise	'concentrate - Stress often falls on the second syllable if the last syllable contains a short vowel or no more than one consonant. Exː de'termine re'member 	 en'counter.. k. The words containing the following groups of letters often receive stress on the third syllable (from the bottom to the top); cy, ty, phy, gy. ( the nouns or adjectives containing ‘y’ at the end often receive stressed syllable on the first syllable with 2 or 3 - syllable words and on the second one with 4 syllable - words and on the third one with 5 - syllable words). Exː	 'happy 'heavy	'boundary	dis'covery	bi'ology	ge'ography	metho'dology anthro'pology * Noteː but it is different if it is a verb. Exː 	re'ply	 su'pply de'ny	 re'try	 a'pply.. l. Stress in compound words: - Stress often falls on the first syllable in most compound nouns. Exː 	'raincoat	'baseball	'high school	 'airport	'film-star	'phone book	 'sunrise 	'bookshop	'hot dog - Stress often falls on the second syllable in most compound adjectives if the first word is an adjective or an adverb. Exː bad-'tempered 	 ill-'treated	 well-'done well-'dressed	 short-'sighted well-'kept - Stress often falls on the first syllable in most compound adjectives with the nouns or verbs are initial. Exː 'homesick	 'praiseworthy	'airsick 'waterproof	 'trustworthy	'lightening-fast * Noteː 	 duty-'free	snow-'white - In most compound adverbs/verbs, stress often falls on the second syllable. * Compound adverbsː Exː 	head-'first	 South-'west	North-'east	 up'stairs	 down'stream	down'stairs * Compound verbs Exː down-'grade	 ill-'treat	 back-'pedal	 first-'aid * Noteː Stress varies in compound words, which makes the meaning change. Exː 'blackbird: chim s¸o	black'bird: chim mµu ®en	'English teacher: gi¸o viªn tiÕng Anh	English 'teacher: gi¸o viªn ng­êi Anh	'boy friend: ng­êi yªu	boy 'friend: b¹n trai m. Stress varies according to their functions. Exː She is Japa'nese. (predicative)	 She is a 'Japanese girl. (attributive)	 four'teen	 'fourteen hours2. Stress in a sentence: Stress in the sentence mainly falls on the noun, verb, adjective and adverb. Exː 'Vietnam is 'carrying out the industriali'zation and moderni'zation of the 'country. Exː 'Most of the 'students in this 'school are 'good.Connected speech* Connected speechː is divided into two main types. They are mechanical and connected speech.1. Mechanical speechː is the speech in which words or sounds are pronounced separately without any mutual influence. Exː Do you like it?2. Connected speech: In connected speech sounds or words are linked together and a word or sound’s pronunciation may be changed under the influence of its surrounding sound. Exː	 Do you like it? There are 4 aspects of connected speechː Linking (unit13) Rhythm (unit 10, 11) Elision (unit 12) AssimilationLesson 1: Linking (unit 13)Linking is the phenomenon where words or sounds are linked together. There are 4 basic rules of linking. 1. If the first word ends with a consonant and the second begins with a vowel, the final vowel and the initial vowel are linked together. Exː	 The dish is pretty. Our class is dirty. 2. a. If the first word ends with a round vowel /ʊː/ and the second begins with a vowel, they are linked together. Exː	 Do it, we can do it.	 Blue eyes	 Know it w w w w 2. b. If the first word ends with an unround (spread) vowel /æ/ /i/ and the second begin with a vowel, they are linked together. Exː I am 	 In the office	 I own a house. j j j 3. Linking /r/: If the first word ends with /r/ and the second begins with a vowel /r/ is pronounced to link 2 words together. Ex: 	 more interest	 four inches	 go for a walk	 thanks for everything	 my father and mother 4. Intrusive /r/. If the first word ends with a vowel and the second also begins with a vowel, /r/ is pronounced to link two words together. Exː 	 formula A	 media event * Noteː Sometimes listeners have ambiguity in meaning with other words. Exː 	 my train 	might rain	 ice-cream	I screamrrLesson 2: Rhythm (unit 10, 11) 1. Definitionː Rhythm is an event happening at regular internals of time. 2. The rhythm: the rhythm of speech is the regular occurrence of stressed syllable at regular internals of time Exː He /ar'rived at /'six /o’ 'clock.	 Walk /'down to the/'path to the /'end of the /ca'nal. The unit of rhythm begins with the first stressed syllable up to but not including the next stressed syllable. Exː I /'want to /'go /'now.	 	It /'seems im/'possible. 'Mary and /'George /'specially /'want to 'go to/'morrow.Lesson 3: Elision (unit 12) 1. Definitionː Elision is the typical of rapid, casual speech; the process of change in phoneme realizations produced by changing the speed and casualness of speech is sometimes caused gradation. 2. Types of elision (4 types): a. Loss of the weak vowel after /p/, /t/, /k/. Exː 	 potato /p'teitəu/	tomato /t'matəu/	 interest/ 'intrəst/	canary /k'næri/ b. Weak vowel +/n/, /l/ or /r/ becomes syllabic consonants. Exː tonight /tnait/ correct /krekt/ police /plis/ c. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters.It has been said that no normal English speaker would ever pronounce all the consonants between the last two words of the following. Exː George the Sixth’s throne. /dʒɔːdʒ ðə sikθs θrəʊn/	 /dʒɔːdʒ ðə siksθrəʊn/	 looked back / lʊkt bæk/ -> / lʊk bæk/	 scripts / skrips/ d. Loss of final ‘v’ in ‘of’ before consonants. Exː 	 lots of them / lɔts ə ðəm/	 waste of money / weist ə mʌni/Lesson 4ː Assimilation I. Definition: Assimilation is the change in pronunciation of a phoneme under the influence of its surrounding sounds. Exː news /njuz/ but newspaper /njuspeipə/ II. Types of assimilation (5 types): 1. According to the position of assimilation (at the boundary and in a word): a. At the boundaryː Exː 	don’t you /dəʊntʃjʊ/	could you /kʊdʒjʊ/	 can’t you /cantʃjʊ/	would you /wʊddʒjʊ/ Exː 	let me / lemi/	give me / gimi/	 want to (wana) / wɔnə/	going to (gonna) /gɔnə/	 used to /justə/	have to / haf tə/ b. In a wordː - Assimilation of velars. / n/, /k/, /g/ When ‘n’ is next to /k/ and /g/, it is pronounced /ŋ/. Exː bank / bæŋk/ 	 extinct / ikstiŋkt/	 concrete / kɔŋkrit/	 singer / siŋə/	 monkey/ mʌŋki/	 gangster / gæŋstə/ - Assimilation of voicing. voiced + voiceless 	 exː jumped / jʌmpt/ voiceless +voiceless	 exː jumps / jʌmps/ 2. According to the role of assimilation (assimilating and assimilated sound): Ex: think / θiŋk/ (‘ŋ’ is assimilated sound and ‘k’ is assimilating sound) 3. According to the degree of assimilation (total and partial assimilation): a. total assimilation. Exː 	 horse-shoes / hɔːs ʃʊː/ -> / hɔːʃ ʃʊː/	 does she / dʌz ʃi / -> / dʌʃ ʃi / - In total assimilation the pronunciation of the assimilated sound is completely changed to that of assimilating sound. b. partial assimilation. Ex: please / pli:z /	 try / trai /	 swim / swim/	 persuade / pəːsweid / - In partial assimilation the main features of pronunciation of sound are reserved with only a decrease in the voicing of voiced consonants. 4. According to the direction of assimilation: a. Progressive assimilation. Exː	 dogs / dɔgz/ 	cats / kæts / - In progressive assimilation the preceding sound assimilates its surrounding sound b. Regressive assimilation. Exː bank / bæŋk /	donkey / dɔŋki / - In regressive assimilation the following sound assimilates the preceding sound. c. Mutual assimilationː The two sounds assimilate each other. Exː 	can’t you / cantʃjʊ/	could you / kʊdʒjʊ/ 5. According to the time of assimilation: a. Historical assimilation happens in the development of the language and has now become stable. Exː nation / neitjən / -> /'neiʃn /	 musician / mjuzisjən / -> / mju'ziʃn /	 	 occasion / əkeizjən / -> / ə'keiʒn /	 education / edjukeiʃn / -> / edʒu'keiʃn /	 procedure / prəsidju/ -> / prə'siʒə / b. Contextual assimilation: happens when 2 words stand together. Ex: don’t you /dəuntʃju/ 	haven’t you /hævntʃju/Intonation (unit 14, 15, 16) 1. Definitionː Intonation is the use of stress rhythm unit (tone) of speaker when she/ he is speaking. There are types of intonation ( rise, fall, rise-fall and fall-rise) 2. Changes of intonationː a. Intonation in statement ; falling tune (tone) is often used in statement (before commas, and dots). b. Intonation in questions. * In yes / no questions. Rising tune is often used at the end of the sentence. Ex: Do you love me? 	 Is it you? * In wh- questions. Falling tune is often used at the end of the sentence. Ex: How much is it?	 Where do you often go at the weekend?	 What do you often do in your free time? * In tag- questions. Ex: You like chicken, don’t you? (certain)	 You don’t like chicken, do you? (hesitation) 3. In the answers yes/ no: a. Rising tuneː Exː Aː Do you like Bacgiang? Bː Yes. it is a beautiful city. (B wants to continue the conversation) b. Falling tune: Exː 	 Aː Do you know where Peter is?	 Bː Yes, in the kitchen. (B knows him but B doesn’t care much about him, so stop the conversation and change the topic) c. Rise-falling tune: Exː 	Aː Would you like to go out for dinner with me tonight, Lan?Bː Oh, yes. I’d love to. ( express strong feeling) d. Fall-rising tune: Exː	 A. Bacgiang is a nice city, isn’t it? B. Yes. I think so. (express doubt, hesitation or uncertainty) 

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