Bài giảng môn Tiếng Anh - Unit 4: Health and fitness

Warm-up

 Look at the picture and work in pair, discuss the following questions:

1. Why are many people overweight nowadays? And should overweigh be or not?

2. Many people only need not to east, they can lose weight fast. Is it right? Why?

3. If you are an over weight person, how will you give yourself the Pyramid diet?

 

 

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Warm-up 
 	Look at the picture and work in pair, discuss the following questions:
 Why are many people overweight nowadays? And should overweigh be or not?
Many people only need not to east, they can lose weight fast. Is it right? Why?
If you are an over weight person, how will you give yourself the Pyramid diet?
 DEVELOP YOUR READING SKILLS
`	Part 1 : Match the paragraph to the headings. 
 List of headings
Fix Your Posture
Fix Your Game
Fix Your Storytelling
Restore Your Endurance
Stop Procrastinating
Fix a Leaky Faucet
1. 
Use the 20-20 rule. "Trying to sit up perfectly straight all day is impractical and will only tire you out," says Alan Hedge, Ph.D., a professor of ergonomics at Cornell University. Every 20 minutes, stand for 20 seconds and stretch or shake things out. "Just 20 seconds away from your computer screen reduces fatigue and increases blood circulation," says Hedge. Now you'll have the power to sit up straight
2.
. Do not make a to-do list. Do not research power tools. Do not clean your desk. Just dive in. That's according to Pitchy, who has studied procrastination. Your to-do list is just another delaying tactic with a short-term rush. "We relieve our anxiety by making this false schedule," Pychyl says. Procrastinators aren't necessarily bad at time management, he says, "they're just not willing to deal with the discomfort of getting started."
But starting will ultimately make you feel better about working. "Our emotional well-being and our satisfaction with life," he says, "is based a great deal upon the successful pursuit of our goals."
 3
 The secret to improving endurance is to go faster, not lengthen a plodding run. Bill Hartman, P.T., C.S.C.S., suggests breaking your run into intervals at your goal speed. If your 5-K goal is 24 minutes, you must run a mile in 7:40, a half-mile in 3:50, and a quarter in 1:55. Pick the distance you can hit in that time and run those intervals, resting for as long as you ran. Once you can run, say, four quarters in 1:55, move up to a longer interval. Work your way up to your goal distance.
 4. 
Relax and set your approach on Deeply Subtle. Make talking to you her decision, which will make her feel better about herself—and you. Never butt in while she's with her friends.
Wait until she's alone, then issue a drive-by compliment (keep it above the neck or below the ankles). "We're used to men approaching us," says Lisa Alitalia, the author of The Pocket Idiot's Guide to Getting Girls, "but if a man says something and then walks away like he doesn't want anything, it piques our curiosity." Now she'll feel in control. Is she glancing your way? That means you've been cleared for approach
 5
 Get to the point. Get to the point. Get to the point. Details—about the weather, color of the bike, height of the rosebush—make people's attention spans collapse. A brief story lets them play along and fill in their own details. Start your tale when the conversation provides a segue, and not after someone just scored a big laugh. (If you tank, you're the guy who killed the mood.) 
Tell the story quickly, make yourself the fool, and exaggerate. "Take it to the edge of believability. Stuff happens every day to people. You need to make it stand out," says Jack Gallagher, comedian and writer/performer of the one-man show What He Left. 
 6. 
 Many single-lever faucets leak when crud collects and causes a gap in the seal so it can't shut off, says Danny Lip ford, host of Today's Homeowner. First, shut off the water supply under the sink. Then use an Allen wrench to loosen the screw at the base of the faucet handle and lift it off. Remove the washers and movable parts, soak them in white vinegar, and wipe them down. Reassemble and turn the water back on
 (  )
Part 2: Fill the words in the box into the blanks of paragraph:
 Benefits, Exceptions, Blood, Decline, Sluggish, Muscles, Mobility, Rambling, Stable, Sport
 Keep mobile
Almost half of adults in the UK will be aged over 50 by 2020. We tend to assume the . (1) and pleasures of sport, exercise and fitness are only for younger people, but think again. The rewards of improved fitness later in life can be great – both for your health and social life.
Statistics show activity levels  (2) steadily with age, and by their mid-50s few people take regular exercise.
But regular activity is especially important as you age because it has beneficial effects on conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and helps you maintain  (3) and mental well-being and, consequently, your independence.
There's no reason you should give up the .. (4) you love just because you're getting older. There are plenty of ..(5) to the statistical trend of decreased activity as we get older – at clubs up and down the country, for example, there are runners in their 50s, 60s and beyond whose fitness puts people 20 or 30 years their junior to shame. 
And even if you weren't especially active or sporty at a younger age, it's never too late to start. Male or female, single or with a partner, there's lots you can do, and enjoy. 
Some of the health benefits you'll get are the same as younger people, but there are things that are of particular benefit as you get older: 
More energy - exercise makes you feel more energetic, while sitting around not doing much makes you feel (6) and unable to do anything
Improved sleep - your body and mind feel as though they've done something and are ready for rest at night
(7) weight - regular exercise helps to keep you at a healthy weight
Improved circulation and lower blood (8)
Delayed ageing - keeping active strengthens your ..(9) joints and bones as well as helping with mobility and balance, important as it helps to prevent falls, which are the leading cause of injury and death for the over-75s
 On top of the health benefits, exercise can be an excellent way to meet new people, whether it's at a gym, a .. (10) or running club, or just people you meet while walking the dog. 
 (  )
READ AND ANSWER 
Part 3: You are going to read an article about Importance of breakfast for students. Seven sentences have been removed from the article .Choose from the sentence A-G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you don’t need to see. 
A .For doing these activities, they need energy which comes from glucose that breakfast provides
 B. However, they do not realize that not eating breakfast actually hampers their health and can cause various learning problems
 C. Unfortunately many of them have the tendency of skipping this morning meal. The article draws attention to the importance of breakfast for children.
D. It is seen that students who have their breakfast regularly score better in their tests than those who avoid eating breakfast
E. Still, not many have taken it seriously and made breakfast a part of their daily
diet
F. Breakfast is also beneficial for the memory of the students as they are able to remember and retrieve already learned information quickly as well as accurately.
G. By eating breakfast, we are actually breaking the fast or long gap after dinner, the previous night
 Importance of Breakfast for Students
 Almost every one of us must have heard the saying, breakfast is the most important meal of the day. 1.. Just like adults, skipping breakfast has also become a practice among school going children and as parents and caregivers, it is our responsibility to provide them with a healthy breakfast. Many students refuse to eat breakfast before going to school for several reasons, like, lack of time, not feeling hungry, etc. 2..To avoid such problems, it is necessary that students develop the habit of eating breakfast daily. Rather than forcing children to eat breakfast, it is better if we make them understand the importance of breakfast for students and the ways it will benefit them.
 	The exact meaning and importance of breakfast lies in the word itself.3. By the time we wake up in the morning, all our energy is used up and hence we need new energy to go through our daily routine. Students who do not eat or skip breakfast on a regular basis are at a high risk of developing gastroenteritis and several other health problems. Not only that, students have to face a lot of challenges in school and an empty stomach may come in the way of their progress. It has been observed that children who do not have their breakfast before going to school have problems, like, headache, sleepiness, stomach pain, muscle fatigue, etc. Indecisiveness, anger, anxiety, irritability, unhappiness, nervousness, lethargy, hostility, etc. are some other problems that can be seen in students who skip their breakfast. Such physical and psychological problems have the ability to hinder the learning process of students
The first point that comes to my mind while thinking about importance of breakfast for kids is that breakfast helps in their overall learning process. Students have a busy time in school where they not only learn different subjects but also indulge in extracurricular activities.4.. . Moreover, eating breakfast regularly also helps in weight management which can reduce the risk of child obesity which has become a common problem in recent times due to unhealthy eating habits.
Students who have the habit of eating breakfast have been reported to have better concentration during lessons than those who do not.5.. Even their problem solving ability is enhanced by eating breakfast on a regular basis.
 Studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between eating breakfast and test scores.6... As a healthy breakfast offers ¼ of the nutrition that the body requires, there are less chances that children will indulge in binge eating foods, like, fast foods which are not good for their health. Rather, they are likely to choose foods that are healthier as well as nutritious, later in the day.
Part 4: Find words or phrases in the passage which means the same as:
1. Persons who help in identifying, preventing or treating illness or disability: ... (P1).
2. A movement forward: . (P2).
3. Temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work: .. (P2).
4. A noun which is the study of the mind and how it works: . (P2).
5. Providing nourishment or nutrition: . (P5).
 ( hhtp://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-breakfast-for-students.htm)
 Glossary
1. Hamper ['hæmpə ] (v) to prevent the free movement, action, or progress of.
 Ex: He was hampered in his efforts by the bad weather.
2. Gastroenteritis ['gæstrou,entə'raitis ] (n) inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by salmonella enteritidis (viêm dạ dày ruột ) 
3. Indecisiveness [ ] (n) doubt concerning two or more possible alternatives or courses of action.
 Ex: Now, he has no indecisiveness but the opportunity has just been lost.
4. Irritability [,iritə'biliti ] (n) excessive sensitivity of an organ or body part (tính hoặc tình trạng bực bội, dễ nổi cáu).
5. Lethargy ['leθədʒi ] (n) weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy (trạng thái hôn mê).
6. Hostility [hɔs'tiliti ] (n) tình trạng thù địch, sự đối kháng.
7. Indulge [in'dʌldʒ ] (v) to allow oneself a special pleasure.
 Ex: I always indulge after a busy week in my villa.
8. Extracurricular [ekstrəkə'rikjulə ] (n) outside the regular duties of your job or profession.
9. Obesity [ou'bi:siti ] (n) more than average fatness.
 Ex: the obesity makes many women worried
10. Retrieve [ri'tri:v ] (v) get back, find back.
 Ex: The father retrieved a control of himself.
11. Enhance [in'hɑ:ns ] (v) make better or more attractive.
 Ex: This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat
12. assume [ə'sju:m] (v) cho rằng, thừa nhận
Ex: We cannot assume anything in this case
13. decline [di'klain] (n) sự sụt, sự suy tàn, sự tàn tạ
 Ex : The decline of prices has given many benefits for customers
14. diabetes [daiə'bi:tiz] (n) bệnh đái đường
15 cardiovascular [kɑ:diəʊ'væskjʊlə] (n) tim mạch
 16. mobility [ mou'biliti] (n) tính. chuyển động
17.sluggish ['slʌgi∫] (adj) Slow; having little motion; as, a sluggish stream
	Ex : His father is a sluggish person.
18. dysfunction [dis'fʌηk∫n] (n) sự hoạt động khác thường của một cơ quan trong cơ thể.
19. penile ['pi:nail] (n) tác động đến dương vật
20. elastic [ i'læstik] (adj) co dãn, đàn hồi
21. discoloration [dis,kʌlə'rei∫n] ( n) sự đổi màu, sự bẩn màu
PART 4: Translate the passage of part 3
TẦM QUAN TRỌNG CỦA BỮA SÁNG CHO SINH VIÊN
 Hầu hết mọi người trong chúng ta chắc rằng đã nghe đến câu nói, bữa sáng là bữa ăn quan trọng nhất trong ngày. Tuy nhiên, nhiều người đã không lấy nó nghiêm túc và làm bữa ăn sáng là một phần của chế độ ăn uống hàng ngày của họ. Just like adults, skipping breakfast has also become a practice among school going children and as parents and caregivers, it is our responsibility to provide them with a healthy breakfast. Cũng giống như người lớn, bỏ qua bữa ăn sáng cũng đã trở thành một thực tế trong số các trẻ em đi học và với tư cách là cha mẹ và những người chăm sóc, đó là trách nhiệm của chúng ta để cung cấp cho họ một bữa sáng khỏe mạnh. Many students refuse to eat breakfast before going to school for several reasons, like, lack of time, not feeling hungry, etc. However, they do not realize that not eating breakfast actually hampers their health and can cause various learning problems. Nhiều sinh viên từ chối để ăn bữa ăn sáng trước khi đến trường học vì nhiều lý do, như, thiếu thời gian, không cảm thấy đói, vv .Tuy nhiên, họ không nhận ra rằng không ăn sáng thực sự cản trở sức khỏe của họ và có thể gây ra nhiều vấn đề về học tập. To avoid such problems, it is necessary that students develop the habit of eating breakfast daily. Để tránh những vấn đề như vậy, nó là cần thiết cho sinh viên tạo thói quen ăn bữa ăn sáng hàng ngày. Rather than forcing children to eat breakfast, it is better if we make them understand the importance of breakfast for students and the ways it will benefit them. Thay vì buộc các em ăn sáng, nó là tốt hơn nếu chúng ta làm cho họ hiểu được tầm quan trọng của bữa ăn sáng và những cách sẽ có lợi cho họ.
Tầm quan trọng của bữa sáng cho học sinh 
 The exact meaning and importance of breakfast lies in the word itself.Ý nghĩa chính xác và tầm quan trọng của bữa ăn sáng nằm trong từ chính nó. By eating breakfast, we are actually breaking the fast or long gap after dinner, the previous night. Bởi việc ăn sáng, chúng ta đang thực sự phá vỡ khoảng cách nhanh hay lâu sau bữa tối, đêm trước đó. By the time we wake up in the morning, all our energy is used up and hence we need new energy to go through our daily routine. Bởi thời gian chúng ta thức dậy vào buổi sáng, tất cả năng lượng của chúng ta được sử dụng hết và vì vậy chúng ta cần năng lượng mới để làm việc của mỗi ngày. Students who do not eat or skip breakfast on a regular basis are at a high risk of developing gastroenteritis and several other health problems. Sinh viên không ăn hoặc bỏ bữa ăn sáng thường xuyên có nguy cơ cao phát triển bệnh viêm dạ dày và một số vấn đề sức khỏe khác. Not only that, students have to face a lot of challenges in school and an empty stomach may come in the way of their progress. Không chỉ vậy, học sinh phải đối mặt với nhiều thách thức trong trường học và một dạ dày trống rỗng, có thể theo cách của sự tiến bộ của họ. It has been observed that children who do not have their breakfast before going to school have problems, like, headache, sleepiness, stomach pain, muscle fatigue, etc. Indecisiveness, anger, anxiety, irritability, unhappiness, nervousness, lethargy, hostility, etc. are some other problems that can be seen in students who skip their breakfast. Nó đã được quan sát thấy rằng trẻ em không có bữa ăn sáng trước khi đi học gặp phải nhiều vấn đề, như, nhức đầu, buồn ngủ, đau dạ dày, mệt mỏi cơ bắp, vv. Tính không quyết đoán, tức giận, lo lắng, khó chịu, bất hạnh, hồi hộp, thờ ơ, sự chống đối, vv là một số vấn đề khác có thể được nhìn thấy trong những học sinh bỏ bữa ăn sáng của họ.. Such physical and psychological problems have the ability to hinder the learning process of students. Những vấn đề về thể chất và tâm lý có khả năng cản trở quá trình học tập của học sinh.
Thực tế quan trọng của bữa sáng cho học sinh
Điểm đầu tiên nảy sinh trong tâm trí của tôi tkhi nghĩ về tầm quan trọng của bữa ăn sáng cho trẻ em là bữa ăn sáng sẽ giúp cho toàn bộ quá trình học tập của học sinh. Students have a busy time in school where they not only learn different subjects but also indulge in extracurricular activities.Học sinh có một thời gian bận rộn trong trường học, nơi họ không chỉ học môn khác nhau mà còn đam mê trong các hoạt động ngoại khóa. For doing these activities, they need energy which comes from glucose that breakfast provides. Để thực hiện các hoạt động này, họ cần năng lượng từ đường mà bữa ăn sáng cung cấp. Moreover, eating breakfast regularly also helps in weight management which can reduce the risk of child obesity which has become a common problem in recent times due to unhealthy eating habits. Hơn nữa, ăn bữa ăn sáng thường xuyên cũng giúp trong việc quản lý trọng lượng có thể giảm nguy cơ béo phì trẻ em đã trở thành một vấn đề thường gặp trong thời gian gần đây do thói quen ăn uống không lành mạnh. 
Students who have the habit of eating breakfast have been reported to have better concentration during lessons than those who do not. Những học sinh có thói quen ăn bữa sáng đã được báo cáo có sự tập trung tốt hơn trong bài học so với những người không ăn sáng. Breakfast is also beneficial for the memory of the students as they are able to remember and retrieve already learned information quickly as well as accurately. Ăn sáng cũng mang lại lợi ích cho bộ nhớ của học sinh khi họ có thể nhớ và lấy thông tin đã được học một cách nhanh chóng và chính xác. Even their problem solving ability is enhanced by eating breakfast on a regular basis. Ngay cả khả năng giải quyết vấn đề của họ được tăng cường bằng cách ăn sáng một cách thường xuyên.
Studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between eating breakfast and test scores.Các nghiên cứu đã chỉ ra rằng có mối tương quan trực tiếp giữa các bữa ăn sáng và điểm thi. It is seen that students who have their breakfast regularly score better in their tests than those who avoid eating breakfast. Nó được nhận thấy rằng các học sinh có bữa ăn sáng thường xuyên điểm tốt hơn trong kì thi so với những người tránh ăn bữa ăn sáng. As a healthy breakfast offers ¼ of the nutrition that the body requires, there are less chances that children will indulge in binge eating foods, like, fast foods which are not good for their health.Một bữa sáng khỏe mạnh phải cung cấp ¼ của dinh dưỡng mà cơ thể cần. Đó là ít cơ hội mà trẻ em sẽ được thưởng thức thực phẩm không tốt, như, thức ăn nhanh cái không tốt cho sức khỏe của họ. Rather, they are likely to choose foods that are healthier as well as nutritious, later in the day. Thay vào đó, họ có thể chọn lựa loại thực phẩm được lành mạnh cũng như dinh dưỡng hơn, sau đó trong ngày.
 KEY WORDS
Part 1: 1.A 2.E 3.D 4.B 5.C 6.F
Part 2: 1. Benefits
	2. Decline 
	3. Mobility
	4. Sport
	5. Exceptions
	6. Sluggish
	7. Stable
	8. Blood
	9. Muscles
	10. Rambling
Part 3:
E
B
G
A
F
D
Part 4: 1. Caregivers 
2. Progress
 3. Fatigue
 4. Psychology
 5. Nutritious

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