Public speaking

I.1. Selecting Your Subject

 - Being given by the teacher

 - Having freedom of choice

Your interest in the subject

Your sufficient knowledge about the subject

Your ability, time and resources for additional information

I.2. Narrowing Your Subject to a Topic

I.2.1 Restricting your purpose:

“What exactly do I want to do in this presentation?”

Two purposes: to inform or two persuade

In an informative presentation, your purpose may be to:

# Inform # Summarize # Narrate # Report

 # Explain # Describe # Give instructions # Analyze

In a persuasive presentation, your purpose may be to:

# Persuade # Recommend # Propose # Evaluate

# Change attitudes # Support # Call to action

I.2.2. Asking focus questions

 Consider the following questions, using your general subject in the place of S.




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 PUBLIC SPEAKINGDesigned by Nguyen Van Tuan, MA2007-2008Department of EnglishHue College of Foreign LanguagesI. Assessing the Speaking SituationI.1. Selecting Your Subject	- Being given by the teacher	- Having freedom of choiceYour interest in the subjectYour sufficient knowledge about the subjectYour ability, time and resources for additional informationI.2. Narrowing Your Subject to a TopicI.2.1 Restricting your purpose: “What exactly do I want to do in this presentation?”Two purposes: to inform or two persuadeIn an informative presentation, your purpose may be to:# Inform	# Summarize	# Narrate	# Report # Explain	# Describe	# Give instructions	# AnalyzeIn a persuasive presentation, your purpose may be to:# Persuade	# Recommend	# Propose	# Evaluate# Change attitudes	# Support	# Call to actionI.2.2. Asking focus questions Consider the following questions, using your general subject in the place of S.What are the causes of S?What are the effects or consequences of S?What are the advantages or benefits of S?What are the disadvantages of S?What are the dangers of S?What are the problems/difficulties associated with S?What are ways to reduce or prevent S?What are ways to increase or encourage S?What are the important qualities/characteristics of S?What are different types of S?What are reasons to support S?What are reasons to oppose S?I.2.3. Limiting the scope:A specific place: in this city/at this schoolA specific time: recent advances/future developmentsA specific number: 3 main effects/4 basic reasonsI.2.4 Analyzing Your AudienceBackground information:* Nationality	* Field of study	* Occupation * AgeCurrent situation: * Listeners’ goals, experiences, problems* Listeners’ interest  work, school, hobby, health, family, love, friends, city, community, environmentWants and needs:* To have friends, family, love/to be happy, safe and secure* To enjoy success- personally, professionally, emotionally* To earn and save money/to save time and effort* To be valued and appreciated by othersI.2.5. Meeting Special Guideline:Due dateTime limitsOther guidelinesII. Exploring Your TopicII.1. Listing:Write the topic at the top.Write every idea that comes to mind.Write quickly, using words or short phrases.Use your imagination and let your ideas flow.Cross out any ideas that do not seem to fit.Put a check next to the most interesting ideas.Add any new ideas that come to mind.II.2. Clustering:Write your topic in a word/short phrase in the middle of a sheet of paper. Circle this.Write main points in a word/short phrases. Place the circled main points around the circle topic.Think of supporting information related to each main point. Circle each idea and connect it to the related main point with a line.Examples of Listing and Clustering Disadvantages of Living in a CityMurders, robberiesSubway dangerous at nightRents very expensiveCan’t afford to buy a place to liveNo parkingBuses, streets are crowdedRude, unfriendly peopleMany accidentsWorry about being muggedDirty streets-litterToo much noiseNot enough trees and flowers-concreteCrimeTraffic jamsAfraid to go out at nightTaxis are expensiveHomeless people on streetsUgly buildingsLitter in streetTrafficExpenseBad environmentCrimeDisadvantagesof living ina cityAccidentsMurdersCrowdedbusesHighrentsCan’t affordA houseTaxisNoiseConcreteNo parkingRobberiesIII. Organizing Your IdeasDevelop the body by breaking down your topic into main points.Support each main point with specific information.The number of main points is from 3 to 5.Topics are naturally divided into several main points: advantages, disadvantages, causes, effects, solutions, reasons, difficulties, qualities, types, stages, steps, and so forth.Group your ideas.Sort through your explored ideas to identify the main points.Begin to see that some of the ideas are related.Put these related ideas into groups.	CRIME (murders, robberies, worry about being mugged, crime, and afraid to go out at night)- Cross out ideas that do not fit or that repeat other ideas.IV. Outlining Your IdeasIV.1. A tree diagram	Disadvantages ofLiving in the CityCrimeTrafficEnvironmentExpenseMurdersMuggingsRobberiesNo parkingAccidentsTraffic jamsDirty streetsNoiseHomeless peopleTaxisHigh rentsExpensivehousesIV.2 An Informal DiagramCrimeMurdersRobberiesMuggingsTrafficNo parkingTraffic jamsAccidentsEnvironmentDirty streetsToo much noiseHomeless people4. 	ExpenseHigh rentsExpensive housesTaxisIV. A Formal DiagramI.	CrimeMurdersRobberiesMuggingsTrafficNo parkingTraffic jamsAccidentsEnvironmentDirty streetsToo much noiseHomeless peopleExpenseHigh rentsExpensive housesTaxisV. Signposting/ Using Transitional Connectors (1)STARTING WITH/INTRODUCING THE FIRST MAIN POINTTo start with,......I’d like to start/begin by........Let’s/ I’ll begin by........The first advantage is........To begin, the first effect is.........FINISHING ONE MAIN POINTWell, I’ve told you about......./I’ve explained.......Let me move on to...........That’s all I have to say about.........We’ve looked at............So much for.......... ADDING OTHER MAIN POINTNow, we’ll move on to.......Let me turn now to.......Another serious problem is......The second main effect is.......I’d like now to discuss.........Next......./In addition,............/Furthermore,...........V. Signposting/ Using Transitional Connectors (2)PROVIDING SUPPORTLet me give you a good example.An example of this is.........For example,/For instance,.......This is important because........As a result,.........Let’s consider this in more detail.......As an illustration,..........To illustrate this point,........DEALING WITH QUESTIONSWe’ll be examining this point in more detail later on.......I’d like to deal with this question later, if I may.......I’ll come back to this question later in my task......Perhaps you’d like to raise this point at the end.....SUMMARISING AND CONCLUDINGIn conclusionRight, let’s sum up, shall we?I’d like now to recap.......Let’s summarize briefly what we’ve looked at......Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we’ve covered....VI. Developing an Effective Introduction (1)Attracting Your Listeners’ InterestRelate your topic to your listeners’ concerns.Tell an anecdote that relates to your topic.Ask your listeners one or more questions.Use a quotation from an expert.Offer an interesting or surprising fact, opinion, or statement.Try not to begin with, “The subject of my presentation is.......”Avoid starting with, “I’m going to talk to you about........”Previewing the ContentState your topic clearly.Preview the order of the main ideas.Prepare the listeners for your presentation.Help the listeners follow your method of organization.The introduction should be brief and to the point.Never use the introduction to apologize to the audience.An effective introduction can make the listeners eager to hear what you have to say on the subject.VII. SAMPLE INTRODUCTIONSRelating Your Topic to Your Listeners’ Concerns and Asking Questions	How many of you have flown across the ocean in the past year? How did you feel when you arrived at your destination? If you’re like me, you felt tired, you couldn’t think very clearly, and you had a lot of trouble sleeping for several days. These feelings are known as jet lag. Jet lag happens when you cross several time zones on a trip, and then you have to eat, sleep and work at times when your body wants to do something else. Today I’m going to tell you how you can avoid jet lag by controlling four main factors-food, drink, activity and light.2. Using a quotation	In 1787 Thomas Jefferson said and I quote, “Travelling. This makes men wiser, but less happy.” I think if Jefferson were speaking today, he might say, “Travelling makes men and women wiser but less happy.” However, the message would be the same. Travelling certainly has its difficulties, but today I’d like to look at the ways it makes people wiser. I’ll discuss three major benefits of travelling: first, educational benefits; then, cultural benefits; and finally social benefits.3. Offering an Interesting Fact	I read an interesting fact in the newspaper yesterday: the average American teenager watches five to six hours of television every day. Can this much television be good for anyone? In my opinion, spending so much time in front of the television has many negative consequences. Today I’d like to focus on three consequences that I think are harmful. First, television encourages teenagers to waste their time. Second, television makes teenagers passive. And, finally, television gives teenagers a very unrealistic view of life. 4. Telling an Anecdote	Yesterday evening, I took a bus home from work, as I usually do. I had had a good day at work, and was looking forward to a relaxing evening with my family. Well, the trip usually takes twenty minutes, but yesterday it took me more than an hour-all because of a traffic jam! By the time I got home, I was tired, hungry and angry. And why was I such in a terrible mood? Because of traffic! This experience makes me realize how traffic problems affect all of us. Today I’d like to talk to you about three ways of improving the traffic problem in our city. First, I’ll talk about banning parking in the city; second, about banning cars from the centre of town; and last, about improving public transportation.VI. Developing an Strong Conclusion (1)Leave a strong impression on listeners.Be brief and to the point.Avoid surprising listeners by suddenly announcing, “That’s all,” or “ I guess I’ve finished.”In your conclusion, you want to:Signal that you are about to finish the presentationMake concluding commentsThank the audienceAsk whether the listeners have any questionsUse one of the following strategies:Summarize or review the main points you have presented.Remind listeners of the importance of what you have saidPredict future consequences of what you have describedAsk your listeners to take appropriate action.Use the following signalling.	In conclusion,...../In summary,....../To summarize,....	To conclude,......./Before I end, let me say........Use one of the following to ask for questions.	Do you have any questions or comments?	I’ll be very happy to answer any questions you may have.IX. SAMPLE CONCLUSIONS1. 	In conclusion, then, the consequences of television that I’ve mentioned are just to harmful to ignore. Teenagers need to get away from television and out into the real world. Instead of sitting in front of a black box, they should be meeting people, playing sports, doing homework, and developing their talents. Thank you. Do you have any questions or comments?2.	Before I end, let me summarize the main points I’ve mentioned. The next time you are getting ready to travel overseas, just remember-food, drink, activity, and light. By following the suggestions I’ve given you regarding the four factors, you should be able to avoid jet lag completely. Thank you. I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have. X. PRESENTATION STRUCTUREBeginningShort introduction Welcome audience Introduce your topic Explain the structure Explain rules for questionsMiddleBody of presentationPresent topic itselfEndShort conclusion Summarize your presentation Thank your audience Invite questionsQuestions and answerXI. TIPS FOR A GOOD PRESENTATIONLanguage:Simplicity and ClarityUse short words and sentences.Do not use jargons.Talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas.Use active verbs instead of passive verbs.Signposting2. Ways of Delivering Your PresentationDo not hurry.Be enthusiastic.Give time on visuals.Maintain eye contact.Modulate your voice.Look friendly.Keep to your structure.Use your notes.Signpost throughout.Use a strong conclusion.Predict what questions will be asked.Remain polite when dealing with questions.

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